2005/Sep/24

ท่อนาโนคาร์บอน เทคโนโลยีแห่งศตวรรษที่ 21

ท่อนาโนคาร์บอน (carbon nanotubes) ค้นพบครั้งแรก เมื่อปี พ.ศ.2534 โดยนักวิทยาศาสตร์ชาวญี่ปุ่น ชื่อ สุมิโอะ อีจิมะ (Sumio Iijima) ด้วยคุณสมบัติที่ยอดเยี่ยมทั้งใน ทางกลและทางอิเล็กทรอนิกส์ กล่าวคือมันมีความแข็งแรงที่ วัดได้ค่ามากกว่าเหล็กกล้าถึงร้อยเท่า และอาจพูดได้ว่าสักวันหนึ่ง มันจะถูกนำเข้าไปใส่แทนที่ซิลิคอนชิป หรือพวกไอซีต่างๆ ใน
วงจรอิเล็กทรอนิกส์ หรืออุปกรณ์ฮาร์ดแวร์คอมพิวเตอร์ทั้งหลาย ที่เรากำลังใช้กันอยู่ในปัจจุบันนี้ นั่นก็หมายถึงว่า สักวันหนึ่งมัน อาจจะทำให้ซิลิคอนชิปกลายเป็นสิ่งที่ล้าสมัยไปเลยทีเดียว

คาร์บอนเป็นธาตุที่มีลักษณะพิเศษสามารถพบได้ใน หลายๆ รูปแบบโครงสร้าง (allotropic forms) ซึ่งแบ่งออกได้ เป็นสี่ชนิดหลักๆ ดังนี้

1. แบบมีโครงสร้างแข็งแรงทั้งสามมิติ โดยที่อะตอมของ คาร์บอนทั้งหมดจะเกาะยึดด้วยพันธะโควาเลนท์ (covalent bond) อย่างเดียวกับที่พบได้ในรูปของอัญมณีราคาแพง คือเพชร ซึ่งมีความสวยงามและมีความแข็งที่สุดในบรรดาวัสดุ ทั้งหลาย

2. แบบมีโครงสร้างเป็นชั้นๆ หรือเป็นแผ่นสองมิติที่วาง ซ้อนทับและยึดระหว่างชั้นเข้าด้วยกันด้วยแรงที่ต่ำกว่า คือแรง แวนเดอร์วาลส์ (van der Waals force) พบว่าเป็นโครงสร้าง ของแกรไฟต์ เช่นไส้ดินสอที่เรารู้จักกันดี

รูปที่ 1. โครงสร้างของท่อนาโนคาร์บอน

3. แบบโครงสร้างที่มีลักษณะเป็นแผ่นม้วนตัวเป็นท่อ ขนาดเส้นผ่านศูนย์กลางน้อยมาก เลยทำให้มันดูเหมือนเป็น เส้นยาวๆ ในแนวหนึ่งมิติ เรียกว่าท่อนาโนคาร์บอน (รูปที่ 1) ซึ่งเป็นโครงสร้างของคาร์บอนแบบใหม่ที่เพิ่งค้นพบดังกล่าว

รูปที่ 2. โครงสร้างของคาร์บอนหกสิบ (C60)

4. แบบมีโครงสร้างเป็นก้อนขนาดเล็ก จนอาจถือว่ามันเป็น จุดที่ไม่มีมิติหรือศูนย์มิติ เรียกว่าฟูลเลอรีนส์ (fullerenes) ซึ่งส่วนใหญ่ที่พบเป็นคาร์บอนหกสิบ (C60) ที่แต่ละโมเลกุลจะ ประกอบไปด้วยอะตอมของคาร์บอนจำนวนทั้งหมด 60 อะตอม มาจับตัวกันด้วยพันธะโควาเลนท์ แล้วได้รูปทรงเป็นแบบก้อน ทรงกลมกลวงคล้ายๆ ลูกตะกร้อหรือลูกบอลขนาดจิ๋ว (รูปที่ 2)

ที่มา: (http://physics.science.cmu.ac.th/staff/pisith/carbon1.html)
ข้อมูลเพิ่มเติม: (http://www.nanotec.or.th)

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